Virtual Pediatric Hospital: ElectricAirway: Upper Airway Problems in Children
ElectricAirway: Upper Airway Problems in Children: Croup Syndromes
Answer to 15
Donna M. Santer, M.D., Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed by Lauren D Holinger, MD, Robert J. Winter, MD and the AMA
The answer is B. Congenital subglottic stenosis is defined as subglottic stenosis in the absence of a history of intubation, other laryngeal trauma, or extrinsic compression, such as a vascular malformation like a double aortic arch (Picture A). It is caused by failure to recanalize the lumen of the larynx and trachea in embryonic life, thus resulting in atresia, stenosis, or webs (Picture B). Picture C shows a granuloma in the tracheal lumen. Granulomas are an overabundance of scar tissue that is formed during the healing process following an insult such as intubation. Thus, granulomas would be a caused of acquired subglottic stenosis.
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