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Virtual Pediatric Hospital: Paediapaedia: Galenic Arteriovenous Malformation (Vein of Galen Aneurysm) Paediapaedia: Neurological Diseases

Galenic Arteriovenous Malformation (Vein of Galen Aneurysm)

Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Clinical Presentation:
In neonates it causes high output congestive heart failure. In older children it obstructs the Aqueduct of Sylvius, producing non communicating hydrocephalus.

Etiology/Pathophysiology:
Is a congenital arteriovenous malformation with blood shunting from cerebral arteries into an aneurysmally dilated great vein of Galen and the straight sinus. The major feeding vessels are the posterior cerebral artery and its branches the posterior choroidal and posterior perforating artery.

Pathology:
Not applicable

Imaging Findings:
Chest film shows cardiomegaly with right sided predominance. The superior mediastinum is widened due to dilation of the brachiocephalic arteries and veins. Pulmonary vascularity is frequently normal because of the pulmonary arterial hypertension of the newborn.

On angiography rapid arteriovenous shunting into a dilated saclike vein of Galen and straight sinus is seen.

DDX:

References:
See References Chapter.

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