Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
The skull has 3 embryonic divisions: (1) cerebral capsule (meninges, calvarium, scalp), (2) face, and (3) floor of the skull. The cerebral capsule and the face are formed directly from mesenchymal tissue via intramembranous bone formation which is dependent on brain growth, and their sutures close at variable times. The floor of the skull develops via enchondral ossification which is not dependent on brain growth, and its sutures close at a fixed time. By 8 years old brain growth is 95% complete. Synchondrosis is the cartilaginous interface between or within enchondral bones. The intersphenoid synchondrosis disappears by 1 year while the the sphenooccipital synchondrosis disappears in adolescence / early adulthood.
See References Chapter.
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