Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Etiology is unknown.Twenty percent are still born or die as neonates, and an additional 50% die in the first 2 years of life. Other associated anomalies include hip dislocations / club foot / limb deformities (40% ), cardiac defects(30% ), and malrotation (30% ).
Aplasia of the muscles of the lower medial abdominal wall. The kidneys have a decreased number of functioning nephrons with variable cystic dysplasia. The dilated ureters and bladder have a patchy absence of smooth muscle.
The ureters and bladder are dilated. Urethral abnormalities that can be seen include posterior urethral dilation, diverticula, stenosis / atresia, and megaurethra. They can have umbilical-bladder attachment or a patent urachus.
See References Chapter.
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