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Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Indications: used to evaluate the morphology and function of the bladder and urethra and to evaluate for vesicoureteral relux. Specific indications include urinary tract infection, dysuria, frequency, anuria, anorectal malformations to look for fistulas, intersex problems, hydronephrosis / hydroureter.
Normal variants seen include vaginal reflux, bladder ears caused by an extraperitoneal protrusion of bladder through the inguinal rings, and a "spinning top" female urethra
See References Chapter.
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