Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Causes include drowning, acute glomerulonephritis, fluid overload, aspiration, inhalation injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, allergic reaction, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. It is due to injury of the alveolar septa, increased permeability of the pulmonary vascular endothelium, pulmonary microvascular platelet aggregation, and finally intraalveolar edema. In drowning, the extent and severity of the edema depends on the amount of water aspirated and the degree of hypoxia. Whether the water is fresh or salt makes no difference on the pulmonary findings.
One of three patterns is seen: a normal chest, bilateral perihilar pulmonary edema, or generalized pulmonary edema.
See References Chapter.
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