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Virtual Pediatric Hospital: Paediapaedia: Bronchogenic Cyst Paediapaedia: Chest and Airway Diseases

Bronchogenic Cyst

Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Clinical Presentation:
Mediastinal cysts in small children can cause dysphagia or respiratory distress due to displacement of the esophagus and / or trachea. Pulmonary cysts are usually asymptomatic.

Etiology/Pathophysiology:
Due to abnormal branching or budding of the tracheobronchial tree. Bronchogenic cyst is in the broad category of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations which makes them related to enteric duplication cysts and pulmonary sequestration.

Pathology:
Thin walled cysts lined by respiratory epithelium. The walls may contain mucous glands, cartilage, elastic tissue and muscle.

Imaging Findings:
Occur in the mediastinum and lung with equal frequency. Mediastinal cysts are usually solitary, with 50% in the posterior mediastinum, and 35% in the middle mediastinum. Mediastinal cysts rarely communicate with the tracheal tree and are oval and rounded in appearance and may change in shape with inspiration/expiration. Mediastinal cysts are located either centrally or in the perihilar/subcarinal areas. Pulmonary cysts are solitary, round mass lesions located in the medial third of the lung and don't communicate with the tracheobronchial tree until they become infected.

DDX:

References:

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