Virtual Pediatric Hospital: ElectricAirway: Upper Airway Problems in Children
ElectricAirway: Upper Airway Problems in Children: Croup Syndromes
Answer to 20
Donna M. Santer, M.D., Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed by Lauren D Holinger, MD, Robert J. Winter, MD and the AMA
The answer is C. The diagnosis is usually presumptively made by the history and physical examination, but further evaluation is often needed to determine if there is an underlying cause. Vascular anomalies, such as right sided aortic arch or double aortic arch may be easily seen on a standard anteroposterior chest x-ray (X-Ray D). Today, echocardiography (Procedure I) and computed tomograph scanning (CT) can usually provide the necessary information for evaluation and planning of treatment. Other modalities include cinefluoroscopy, cine CT, angiography, and bronchoscopy. Plain endolateral x-rays of the neck do not provide adequate information (X-Ray B).
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